AcasăTerapiiPsihologieAdicția la noile tehnologii. Factori de risc || AESTHESIS și adaptarea ei...

Adicția la noile tehnologii. Factori de risc || AESTHESIS și adaptarea ei într-o versiune românească interesantă și captivantă. Textul va avea 60 de caractere

Adicția la noile tehnologii. Factori de risc || AESTHESIS și adaptarea ei într-o versiune românească interesantă și captivantă. Textul va avea 60 de caractere

Social and cultural changes that have occurred up to now have contributed to the genesis of a society increasingly linked to consumption with a higher prevalence of loneliness and isolation. This situation has been related to an increase in problematic issues associated with different forms of addiction. Although substance addiction has captured the attention of research and interventions, it is considered that excessive inclination or excessive use towards an activity can lead to addiction, even if chemical agents are not involved in this process. Likewise, this type of addiction generates a state of dependence that can restrict individuals’ interests. Therefore, habits that initially seem harmless can become addictive, causing significant interference in various areas of a person’s life. Along the same lines, loss of control in the development of an activity, continuity in its performance despite negative consequences, and the development of increasing dependence are the factors that define the presence of addictive behavior. Additionally, excessive use in terms of intensity, frequency, duration, or money invested can distinguish between normal and addictive behavior. In this way, „non-chemical addictions” are defined by the implementation of repetitive behaviors with the aim of reducing internal tension experienced by the individual. Regarding the maintenance of addictive behavior, it is initially determined by reinforcing or pleasurable aspects of it (ease in carrying out tasks, new forms of social contact, etc.). However, over time, such behavior becomes controlled by negative reinforcers such as relief from emotional tension or discomfort (boredom, loneliness, anxiety, etc.). Addiction to new technologies Addiction to new technologies consists of the abusive consumption of some device or service such as computers, mobile phones, video games, and even the internet or social media. It is a problem present in all age groups, but a higher prevalence has been detected in teenagers and young people who make greater use of these platforms. Despite being considered a specific addiction, it shares a series of common characteristics with other addictions, such as loss of control, withdrawal syndrome, psychological dependence, interference in various areas, and loss of interest in other activities. The problem is considered to be consolidated when there is excessive use accompanied by loss of control and withdrawal symptoms (anxiety, irritability, low mood, etc.). Furthermore, it is associated with the development of tolerance, meaning the need to be connected or to engage in greater consumption that impacts the execution of everyday activities. Along the same lines, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that one out of every four people suffers from some problem related to new addictions. Additionally, it is estimated that in Spain, the prevalence of addictive disorders associated with new technologies ranges between 6 and 9% of users. On the other hand, it is important to note that addiction to ICT can be the manifestation, in some cases, of another primary addiction such as addictive behaviors associated with sex or pathological gambling. In these cases, new technologies would become the vehicle for accessing another issue. Likewise, it can serve a similar function in other conditions such as social phobia, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Signs and symptoms Many people who suffer from this type of addiction may show behavioral alterations that generate conflicts in different environments. Based on a bio-psycho-social model, the repercussions of excessive use of these platforms in different areas of a person’s life can be highlighted: Physiological consequences: A decrease in food intake and hours of sleep is quite common due to staying connected or „hooked” to the activity. As a result, various problems associated with excessive fatigue, headaches, muscle problems, mental exhaustion, alterations in the immune system, etc. are common. Psychosocial consequences: Arguments and conflicts can occur at home due to resistance to reducing disproportionate use of the addictive object and a decrease in cooperation and coexistence at home. Likewise, social isolation resulting from a notable decrease in social contact, abandonment of routine activities such as hygiene habits, and the appearance of economic or legal problems are common. Additionally, the abuse of social networks can hinder the development of social skills, resulting in difficulties in interaction and the creation of fictional or virtual relationships. Professional consequences: One of the most significant changes is a decline in work or academic performance as a result of decreased dedication to these activities or excessive attention to addictive behavior. Psychological consequences: Irritability, low mood, or feelings of emptiness are common when the use of these platforms is deprived. Additionally, emotional alterations associated with anxiety, emotional impoverishment, or the absence of coping skills are common. Risk factors Various psychological theories consider that certain personality traits or emotional states increase an individual’s vulnerability to „fall into addiction.” Among these factors, some of the most related are antisocial behavior and sensation-seeking. However, elements of learning, conditioning (reinforcements), and experiences during development also play a role. Some of the most prominent risk factors are as follows: Macrosituational factors: These factors include social acceptability, accessibility, and availability of other resources to engage in addictive behavior. Age: Due to the recent expansion of new technologies and virtual platforms, young people and adolescents are the most vulnerable due to the greater use they make of them, as well as the reinforcing effects of their use at this age. Unsatisfied implicit needs: The pleasure and craving for acquiring the latest model of a computer, mobile phone, etc. can mask other more relevant needs in the individual. Thus, the obsession with getting these novelties can contribute to the establishment of addictive behaviors related to their excessive use. Uncohesive identity: Social networks and online platforms provide a means to create a false identity in a highly rewarding virtual world. Personality traits and emotional states: Some characteristics such as impulsiveness, sensation-seeking, excessive shyness, low self-esteem, and inadequate coping styles for everyday difficulties, as well as states of dysphoria, fatigue, worry, low mood, and hostility, are some of the factors most linked to the development of addictive behaviors. Family factors: Certain educational patterns, such as more rigid or permissive family styles, have been associated with non-validating environments and the presence of self-control or self-regulation difficulties that could favor the establishment of addictive behaviors as a way of emotional regulation. Social factors: Social isolation or connections with people who have excessive use of these devices and platforms can incite and enhance the „addiction” to them. Finally, this is a problem that is generated and maintained by a variety of factors. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive evaluation and intervention that allows us to understand the origin and cause of the problem, as well as the function it serves in the individual and the search for a solution. Rafael Fenoy Castaño References Aguilar, O.E. (2012). Some factors related to addictions. Revista de Especialidades Médico-Quirúrgicas, vol. 17 (2), pp. 69-70. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from the website: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=47323278001 Arias, O., Gallego, V., Rodríguez, M.J., & Pozo, M.A. (2012). Addiction to new technologies. Psychology of Addictions, Vol. 1, pp. 2-6. Echeburúa, E., & Corral, P. (2010). Addiction to new technologies and social networks in young people: a new challenge. Adicciones, Vol. 22 (2), pp. 91-96. Echeburúa, E. (2012). Risk factors and protective factors in addiction to new technologies and social networks in young people and adolescents. Revista Española de Drogodependencias, Vol. 37 (4), pp. 435-447. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from the website: […].

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