AcasăTerapiiPsihologieImpactul social și personal al Tulburării de Deficit de Atentie și Hiperactivitate...

Impactul social și personal al Tulburării de Deficit de Atentie și Hiperactivitate (TDAH)-Aesthesis || Psihologi în Madrid

ADHD represents one of the most frequent reasons for consultation due to the enormous consequences it can have for the person and their family in different aspects of life. The prevalence rate is estimated to be between 3-7% of the school-age population. What is the current situation in Spain regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Due to the significant repercussions it has on personal, family, academic, or work development, ADHD has become one of the most investigated disorders in recent years. It is a neurobiological disorder that begins in childhood and whose symptoms can persist into adulthood. Some of the symptoms that characterize the disorder are levels of impulsivity, activity, and inattention that are dysfunctional for the individual. Population surveys suggest that ADHD occurs in approximately 5% of the child population and 2.5% of adults. Regarding the average age of symptom onset, it ranges between 4 and 5 years old. Diagnosing ADHD in preschool age can be difficult because some symptoms may be typical for the age, so it is the intensity, frequency, and impact on the environment that would indicate the presence of ADHD. People with ADHD constitute a quite heterogeneous group, showing a significant variation in the intensity of symptoms, age of onset, and presence in different situations, as their expression can be influenced by situational factors such as the time of day or fatigue, and motivational factors such as a lack of vitality in task performance. It is known that, in some cases, the symptoms exhibited by individuals can be influenced by the environment or cultural group in which they develop, so it is important to take into account the adequate evaluation of ADHD. As for gender, prevalence studies show a higher frequency among males. Many of these individuals show great difficulties in controlling and regulating their behavior, emotions, as well as adhering to established rules. As a result of this, problems in adaptation may arise in the family, school, peer relationships, and possible decreases in academic/work performance. Risk Factors According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are three factors that may contribute to a greater likelihood of developing ADHD, including: Temperamental factor – Certain personality traits may predispose to the disorder, although they are not specific to it. Some of these traits include a lack of behavioral inhibition, the need for greater effort to have behavioral control, negative emotionality, and a high level of novelty-seeking. Genetic factor – a certain degree of heritability has been established for ADHD. Despite genetic probability, these traits would not be necessary or sufficient for the development of the disorder. Visual and auditory impairments, metabolic abnormalities, sleep disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and epilepsy are considered possible influences on the symptoms of the disorder. Environmental factor – A list of environmental causes cannot be conclusively established, although correlations have been found in some cases. Some of these factors could include smoking during pregnancy (part of this association reflects a common genetic risk), a history of child abuse, neglect, multiple foster homes, exposure to neurotoxins (lead), infections (e.g., encephalitis), or exposure to alcohol during intrauterine life. It is important to highlight the role that the psychosocial environment plays as a fundamental modulator of the biological predisposition to ADHD. The environment influences how activity, impulsivity, and inattention are understood and managed by the family, school/work, or society. What are the functional consequences of ADHD? Some of the most notable consequences in the population that presents the disorder, whether children or adults, are as follows: – Academic/work performance: this is one of the most affected areas by ADHD. In the case of children, insufficient or variable dedication to tasks that require sustained effort can lead to low academic performance, limited academic achievements, and even school dropout. Problems related to school and a tendency towards negligence, in some cases, towards peers tend to be more associated with symptoms of inattention, while peer rejection and, to a lesser extent, injuries from accidents are more related to symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsivity. In the case of adults, ADHD is associated with lower job performance and achievement, higher absenteeism, and sometimes even higher unemployment in this population. – Family relationships: the family environment is key in this type of disorder since relationships with family members can be negatively affected. A higher proportion of interpersonal conflicts and divorce incidents have been found among the adult population with ADHD compared to the general population.
– Social relationships: certain behaviors or responses developed by individuals with ADHD can be interpreted by their immediate environment as irresponsibility, laziness, or lack of cooperation, so it can be a complicated task for individuals with ADHD to establish and maintain a safe and stable social bond with their peers. In some cases, situations of isolation and/or social rejection towards the affected person may even occur. – Emotional problems: the various problems that may arise in the aforementioned areas often lead to noticeable symptoms of anxiety in individuals, a low level of self-esteem, and a lack of resources to cope with these situations in their daily lives. Detection of cases and treatment There is currently controversy about the criteria that should be used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Difficulties in the diagnostic process and evaluation methodology result in demographic variations, leading to underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis (the latter being more frequent) of the disorder in the population. It is essential that professionals working in the field of pediatrics, neurology, child and adolescent psychology, and psychiatry have a practical guide on the assessment and treatment of ADHD that brings together the best scientific evidence and is useful for selecting the best option in the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. As for the treatment plan, a good option would be to start with education about the disorder, that is, to provide the necessary information about the entire process to the affected person, their family, their environment, and other professionals. In the case of children, their closest family environment should be informed about the common characteristics of the disorder, its relationship with the problems it presents (behavior, learning, self-esteem, social skills, family functioning, etc.), the clinical course it can follow, and intervention strategies. It is important to explore the parents’ knowledge, their previous experiences, and their expectations, in order to demystify the disorder and create a treatment plan that aligns with the child’s values, beliefs, and abilities, as well as those of their environment and the professional. As for the type of treatment, most empirical studies have shown that non-pharmacological treatment improves many of the symptoms of individuals with ADHD (behavioral problems, self-esteem, socio-familial problems, and quality of life for the child or adult as well as their family). However, it has been found that the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment offers a greater normalization of the disorder, thus reducing core and coexisting symptoms. The decision to use medication should be made jointly with the child’s parents/caregivers, the affected child, or the adult, after explaining the expected benefits and potential side effects. This facilitates the achievement of the same therapeutic outcomes with lower doses of medication compared to pharmacological treatment alone. The psychosocial intervention plan should include a plan for the child, as well as one for the family and their school. Therefore, a focus of special importance in possible cases of ADHD is the correct and careful differential diagnosis, … [Continued]

RELATED ARTICLES
chatbot

Discută online cu asistenții noștri virtuali. Întreabă și primește răspunsuri la întrebările tale.

Calculator calorii pentru slăbire

Calculator calorii pentru slăbire

Vrei să știi câte calorii ar trebui să consumi zilnic pentru a pierde în greutate?

Cât costă un implant dentar?

Cât costă un implant dentar?

Teste psiho și de personalitate

Cele mai citite