AcasăTerapiiPsihologieTraducere: Consecințe emoționale ale discriminării în munca femeilor || Aesthesis Psihologi MadridVersiune...

Traducere: Consecințe emoționale ale discriminării în munca femeilor || Aesthesis Psihologi MadridVersiune în limba română: Efectele emoționale ale discriminării la locul de muncă asupra femeilor || Aesthesis Psihologi Madrid

Traducere: Consecințe emoționale ale discriminării în munca femeilor || Aesthesis Psihologi MadridVersiune în limba română: Efectele emoționale ale discriminării la locul de muncă asupra femeilor || Aesthesis Psihologi Madrid

For years, International Women’s Day has been celebrated, a day that symbolizes the fight for women’s equality. But, has real equality been achieved in the workplace? Clearly not, and what psychological consequences does this have for women? On March 8th, International Women’s Day is celebrated, previously known as International Working Women’s Day. It is a date that commemorates the fight of women for equality in their personal and professional development. Over time, it has become a significant and celebrated date in many countries around the world. The first celebration of this day took place on March 19th, 1911, in Austria, Germany, Denmark, and Switzerland, after the „II International Conference of Socialist Women” held in Copenhagen in 1910, which already demanded equal rights for women, especially regarding women’s suffrage, access to education, non-discrimination in the workplace, and other fundamental rights. Other countries progressively began celebrating Women’s Day, spreading its commemoration worldwide. Six decades later, in 1975, the United Nations General Assembly declared March 8th as „International Women’s Day”. The choice of the day itself is not very clear, and different versions have been developed around the fact that it is a reference date for various women’s demonstrations and protests in different countries. Currently, it has become a day to internationally demand women’s equal rights in all areas, celebrated in many parts of the world. A day that invites reflection on the achievements made to date, but that especially raises the question of the path to follow to achieve the objectives to be met since we receive many daily news about social or labor injustice situations related to women. The question is: Has gender equality truly been achieved? Workplace inequalities Currently, gender inequality in the workplace is still a real problem. For some time now, many feminist movements have denounced these inequalities present in labor markets. As a result, there has been a notable increase in analysis regarding this issue, reflecting the presence of subordination and discrimination in a significant number of women workers. Undoubtedly, there is still a long way to go to ensure that men and women can access job positions on equal terms. In this same line, based on the analysis carried out regarding this social problem, not only have the present inequalities been considered, but also the reasons that perpetuate them. Data from various studies show how, as the presence of women in the workforce increases, the existing structural imbalances worsen and even new ones emerge. Examples of this situation include the wage gap between men and women, the low presence of women in senior management positions, or the higher presence of women in temporary jobs. More striking differences regarding gender disparities in the workplace include: A higher percentage of women working part-time positions. This data is repeated in different countries and within the age range of 15 to 64 years old. Gender differences in the amount of „formal work” – that which is carried out under a paid job position – and „general work” – that which is carried out outside the work environment. As mentioned in the previous point, women often tend to have a lesser amount of formal work, however, it is common for them to have less leisure time. This situation is due to the fact that, in addition to formal work, many women continue to be responsible for household chores and childcare, becoming the largest group of people with a higher amount of general work. A higher number of cases of workplace harassment related to women. Wage differences. On average, women can earn 23% less than men. Women lead the list of unemployed individuals. A higher prevalence of women earning the minimum wage. Higher rates of maternity leave compared to paternity leave. 38.2% of women leave their jobs after the birth of a child, while in the case of men, the percentage drops to 7.4%. Higher risks of poverty for women. Data from the National Institute of Statistics (INE) confirms that the risk of poverty is 21.3% for women, compared to 20.1% for men. Additionally, it is important to highlight the existence of ongoing occupational or professional segregation that occurs at two levels: Horizontal segregation: refers to the greater prevalence of women in lower prestige and worse working conditions sectors. Vertical segregation: refers to gender inequality in business hierarchies, with a higher percentage of men in senior management positions and a higher percentage of women in cleaning, caregiving, and administrative roles. Indirect discrimination The advances made to date have facilitated a decrease in situations of labor discrimination against women. However, this situation has not prevented the emergence of new forms of indirect discrimination that, in addition to the serious repercussions they can have on the victim, are more difficult to detect and therefore correct. Generally, it occurs when a person is in a disadvantaged situation based on an apparently neutral criterion, it is ultimately a disguised discrimination. Some examples of this type of discrimination refer to gender differences regarding the reconciliation of professional and family life, as well as wage differences that, due to the presence of many factors associated with incentives, types of work sectors or occupations, make it difficult to analyze this inequality. Reconciliation of professional and family life Women workers face various difficulties that limit their professional development. One of the biggest impediments is related to reconciling professional and family life. According to data provided by the European Bureau of Statistics, EUROSTAT, the employment rate for men increases when they are in a relationship and have children. In contrast, cohabitation and the arrival of children lead to a decrease in the employment rate for women. This is associated with the limitations women face in terms of professional development or even finding a job and being able to balance all the tasks associated with family and household care. This addition has other social and emotional repercussions on women, such as a decrease in social life, an increase in stress levels, and a reduction in their overall quality of life. Emotional consequences derived from labor inequality All the situations of labor inequality described have significant repercussions in the lives of women. From the greater difficulties in finding or maintaining a job to the wage gap. These are undoubtedly factors that limit the purchasing power of this population segment, promoting the emergence of economic problems that explain the higher rates of female poverty. Likewise, this situation can promote the appearance of various concerns, as well as high levels of physiological activation, anxiety, and stress as a result. Along the same line, the higher amount of general work in day-to-day life caused by the combination of formal work and household and family-related tasks leads to a decline in leisure time, where the reduction of rewarding activities and the decrease in social contact can have direct repercussions on stress levels and the mood of women. Situations of inequality or discrimination are also responsible for various problems related to stress, a decline in work motivation, a decrease in self-esteem, high levels of anxiety, and…

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